The Importance and Future of Drone in Cargo Transportation
Considering the technological developments in the world; The cargo drones are becoming an important part of the rapidly expanding modern logistics industry. Cargo transportation is rapidly shifting from traditional standards to new generation transportation vehicles. Our project; We will touch upon the future of this new cargo transportation type that is developing rapidly and its future cannot be ignored.
Firstly, the cargo drones that are being tested for war logistics operations; it is very close to completing the testing phase in the food sector to provide services for remote service, package delivery in cargo companies and most importantly for the transportation of medical supplies. According to researches, consumers are looking at this new type of cargo transportation and are prepared to pay extra for this service. The service offering, which makes consumers so willing, is known to have significantly reduced delivery time. The most important feature of the cargo drone is the shortening of the delivery time.
In the researches carried out with the drone cargo transport; One of the biggest problems of our city, the traffic jams, the world’s natural life threatening exhaust emissions and fuel consumption will be reduced. Cargo drone transport; It aims to minimize these negative situations caused by the vehicles carrying road cargo transportation by means of its own operation. In this way, contributing to socioeconomic life and being environmentally sensitive is one of the attractive features of modern logistics industry.
One of the most important areas of transport with Drone is undoubtedly medical transport. Medical transport is one of the areas where drone is most needed. When the issue is health, speed is at the beginning of the intervention process. For this reason, in various parts of the world, medical equipment transportation is carried out with drone.
It is observed that there is phlebotomy (blood bag) as the transport material which is the first one in the field of medicine in the field of medicine with the most decreasing and most urgent need. The drones are able to carry out the transport process without disturbing the temperature and structural values of the blood.
This is the general outline of the project. Prepared project; The importance of drone in cargo transportation and how it can serve the modern logistics industry in the future.
A comprehensive description of Drone’s impact on the cargo transport sector and its future strategies is presented below.
Starting from 2006 and with the data until 2017, the current trends, future and development of the cargo sector in our project are examined.
The logistics area of a significant part of the sector; By taking advantage of the recent growth caused by globalization and e-commerce, it is seen that it attaches importance to innovations in order to further develop some work pieces in packaging, shipping and similar fields. One of the most innovative ideas was proposed by Amazon’s CEO, Jeff Bezos, and announced on December 1, 2013 that the world’s largest e-commerce company has tested drone transport.
A small aircraft could not be used for cargo transport. There was no information available on the subject before the announcement of Amazon’s CEO Jeff Bezos.
COBRA Consulting company; the transport sector is moving towards faster delivery times and lowering courier costs (www.cobwebinfo.com, 2013).
In the cargo sector, B2C (company-to-customer) deliveries are mostly preferred over the internet and have led to a growth of 14% in the sector, while orders from DHL are 25% of the deliveries made by the company (DHL, 2008).
In the past years, drones have been used for military and surveillance purposes and have recently entered the consumer market for civilian applications and trade.
In terms of the cost of cargo transportation, the drones have a much lower cost than other road transport vehicles and offer a much faster delivery time than other vehicles.
2.1 Drone in military use
This section is particularly concerned with military aircraft where the literature is much wider and the research has been active for decades. The difference between military drones and civilian vehicles is that they provide a refueling rather than a rechargeable battery, so both durability and speed make a difference (Savuran and Karakaya, 2015).
The unmanned aerial vehicles in the military area are also important for the civilian population. The drones have extremely advanced monitoring and drones already used by soldiers; Live broadcasting can carry various equipment such as video cameras, heat sensors, radar and first aid packages. Some military drones can stay in the air for hours or days, and high-tech cameras can scan the entire city. With the camera and radar systems it carries on, it can enlarge and read the text on a package of 60,000 feet. It also has radar technology to determine your location.
The most important factor in the use of Drone in the military field is the combination of drone and truck. The real problem is with the UAV and its bearer who must visit a target area. In order to minimize the length of the total lap, the calculation of the drone take-off and land positions is of vital importance. In this case, the drone has more than one destination and the carrier moves continuously while the drone is in the air. The problem was solved by the Genetic Algorithm and compared to other solutions, the previous solutions being about 90% shorter than the solutions obtained.
The sensor in the military drones provides adequate coverage while minimizing the cost of route data collection.
2.2 Drone Transportation in Health
This chapter contains information on the use and importance of drone transport in the health sector.
Swiss Post (Swiss Post) and drone manufacturer Matternet; Between two hospitals in Lugano, Switzerland, the laboratory carried the samples successfully with drones. Hospitals hope to make the delivery with drones among them in 2018 as a regular operation. (aircargoworld.com, 2017)
The Swiss Post launched the Ticino EOC Hospital Group and Matternet joint project in March 2017. Samples were transported by road until this date, but as a result of this experiment it was concluded that drones could transport more quickly and efficiently than road transport. Approximately seventy test flights were conducted from March to the present day. The next test flights will continue until April 4, 2018 and will be evaluated. More tests are planned for 2018. The drones used in these tests are 80 centimeters in diameter and can carry up to 2 kilograms. It has a range of 20 kilometers.
Since the safety of valuable medical devices is important, a safe landing can be made with the help of a parachute to release the medicinal product carried in all electronic failures in order for the drone to be able to carry it safely.
At the beginning of 2018, the Tanzanian government will start using drone to distribute medical supplies such as blood and vaccines in remote areas. Rwanda has achieved 1400 successful similar deliveries to date.
3.1 Beginning of Cargo Transportation with Drone
With Drone, Amazon was the first to carry cargo to its customers in Cambridge. This has been a success and has been a major step forward in Amazon’s plans to deploy drone.
First of all, he delivered the Amazon, Fire TV and popcorn bag, made this delivery in 13 minutes and had a big improvement in terms of saving time in cargo transportation.
Iceland performs regular delivery with drone. As one of the largest e-commerce companies in Iceland, AHA has partnered with Flytrex, one of the world’s top drone manufacturing companies, to expand the delivery network and deliver efficient delivery and short delivery times to customers in Reykjavik.
AHA uses Flyrex’s drone distribution system; it transports cargo by reducing the delivery times and costs over the river that divides the city into two.
Flytrex’s system; AHA increased its daily delivery capacity and realized this without increasing its workforce.
The route indicated by the red color is the path used by the road vehicles. The route indicated in green color is the way used in drone transport.
Deliveries in Reykjavik by 25 minutes will be completed in just four minutes by a drone.
Customers shopping in Iceland’s capital city, Reykjavik, will be able to deliver food and other products directly to their doorstep with drones that will significantly speed up their delivery times.
) B We deliver deliveries now as easily and quickly as placing orders. De (Flytrex CEO Yariv Bash)
The service is currently being offered to AHA’s customers with the largest Icelandic network, but the partnership also plans to serve overseas countries.
Upon the positive results obtained from previous studies, a significant increase has been observed in the investments made with drone in recent years. In the last quarter of 2013 and in the first quarter of 2014, the investment rates declined due to the lack of significant developments in the initial investments and the fact that the legal arrangements were not made.
As we have seen in the 3.1 picture 2 graph, there has been a remarkable increase in the investments made with drone in recent years due to the positive results obtained from the studies conducted in previous years. In the last quarter of 2013 and the first quarter of 2014, investment rates in the first quarter of 2014 decreased due to the lack of major developments in the investments made and the absence of legal regulations.
At the beginning of 2014, after the US government attempted to adopt legal regulations on drone transportation, the investments made have increased again. It is foreseen that an increase in the investments resulting from the positive results obtained from the tests carried out each year.
3.2 Countries where Drone is used in cargo transportation
The regions in which the Drone is used most nowadays are countries in the African continent. Most of the drone use in this region is carried out for humanitarian purposes; America, Australia, Iceland, Switzerland and the United Kingdom is used in cargo transportation. Prime Air has drone development centers in the US, UK, Austria and Israel.
Drone delivery is most commonly used in East Africa. It was first used in East Africa in Rwanda and Tanzania. Rwanda has carried out 1400 successful deliveries to date. (2.2)
‘’ Most people; Drone has mistaken belief that robotic and artificial intelligence are being used by rich people in the United States. Countries that are not the richest countries, but modern reform and willing to try new things benefit more from this change. Ül den (Zipline CEO Keller Rinaudo)
Tanzania will open 4 drone distribution centers with Zipline from Silicon Valley. With more than 100 drone you will perform more than 2000 flights.
Amazon received a Cambridge-based order on his first try in the UK. The drone from the ship with the package, then the delivery of the package to the address determined by GPS without any external support has realized the weight of 2.7 kilograms. Amazon; announced that the targets were to be delivered within 30 minutes with the drone. The trial will be held in 2018 near customer orders. (Amazon.com)
4.1 Security in Cargo Transportation with Drone
With drone, safety in cargo transportation is one of the biggest problems. Many studies are carried out on security. In recent years, Amazon has announced that it has done a lot of work for safety in cargo transport with the drone. In 2017, Amazon regularly reviews the security reports generated in test flights at Stansted and Conwall Airports in London.
Safety is our top priority. In today’s conditions; we are able to do it even in strong winds and low visibility, but we can’t do it in the weather conditions like heavy rain, snow and hail. bil (bbc, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos)
4.2 Security of Drone
The drones do not jeopardize the safety of the other transport vehicles, as well as their own safety during the flight.
The drones do not pose a security threat to the aircraft, because the drones do not fly over 400 ft and do not share the same airspace as the passenger jets. However, drones do not take place in airports and other low-flight areas due to safety in areas where airplanes are landing or taking off.
Drones receive help from cameras and other sensors to detect and detect objects around them.
4.3 Security of Transported Package
Amazon; From the panent and trade mark office of USA, with the drone and package service, it has received the approval of parachute delivery for safety. (CNN, 2017)
The purpose of parachute delivery is; drone to ensure the safety of the biggest problem in the transport of the drone and the delivery of the drone to the ground before the delivery.
In the drone transport, Prime Air performs parachute delivery tests with the Amazon partnership, and the best results for successful applicability are shown as parachute delivery.
The use of parachutes in the security of the delivery of the products with valuable and sensitive content is seen as a successful solution.
4.4 Drone Cyber Security
Cyber security experts work against the possibility of drone attack and external control. The drones are called dan dronejacking ’’ the interception of the drones by external intervention Dr. Even if it has a small size and useful structure, it becomes an easy target for hackers from the moment it goes flying.
With Drone, it is necessary to take measures against cybercrime and hackers due to widespread cargo transportation. According to reports from Intel Security, iştir dronejacking göre is shown as one of the biggest cyber security threats for 2018. The possibility of hackers attempting to kidnap drones while on the move is a major threat.
The use of unencrypted telecommunications and open ports for drones to have a simple and fast system makes it a clear target for cybercriminals. The biggest example of cyber attacks on drone was the defco security seminar at the 2015 Defcon security seminar, showing how the drone, which was the former defense minister, could break down the communication and location signals.
McAfee engineers, who investigated the drones, showed how drones were captured by attackers due to open networks and simple validation methods. This process, which was previously planned and carried out manually, can now be easily carried out with ve ve exploits that are drone-oriented, and can be illegally sold from the Dark Web network.
When system gaps on drones are noticed, they can be corrected by the engineers who do the research immediately.
5.1 Food Transport with Drone
The competition in the ready-made food sector has finally led to drone-delivery deliveries. Fast-food companies have started their delivery with drone in accordance with the demand of customers in order to deliver their orders shorter and the delivery time of the orders they gave, and it was concluded that the fastest delivery in today’s conditions was carried out with drone.
Dominos Pizza, first on August 2016; New Zealand has been successful in delivering pizza with the drone tested in Auckland. In September 2016, another organization of Google, Alphabet; Virginia has succeeded in testing the deliveries of a fast food company, Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, with a drone.
Although the trials have received positive feedbacks, many US consumers are skeptical about this issue, but the US Postal Service’s poll, 75% of the survey says that within 5 years, the US Postal Service will start delivery with drone. . According to the survey results, only 32% of US people think that food delivery will be safe with drone, 37% think it will be reliable and 31% do not have an idea about this issue.
5.2 Illegal Use of Drone
The biggest problem with Drone is seen as illegal transportation as one of the biggest problems in cargo transportation. The biggest problem is that even if the drone is caught in an illegal transport, the identity of the person carrying the transport cannot be found, and this keeps the identities of the real criminals.
The most concrete example of the illegal use of Drone or the transportation of an illegal product; When the prison cameras were examined in London, it was realized that the outside of the prison bars were delivered to the prison bars by means of drones, and the solutions were searched for. In the last two years, the numbers of illegal and banned items were more than doubled in the UK and UK prisons. they are illegal substances introduced into the prison through drones.
6.1 Milk-Run Drone Transport
Milk-Run; It is a logistic system inspired by the fact that a milkman delivers milk loaded to his vehicle to the distribution points and collects the empty milk bottles from the same points on his return and returns to the milk facility. In general terms, the producer company supplies its products from the suppliers in the scope of a specific system, the supply of the supplied products to the manufacturer’s facility.
When moving back to collecting products, it is the transportation of the recycled packages or returns from the manufacturer to the suppliers. Members of this cycle will not edit transport operations, but will be involved in the milk-run cycle and process. This transport system will be provided by the Logistics Service Provider (3PL).
One of the problems with respect to drone transportation is the drone’s route point density. The fact that the drone prototypes, which will carry out the transportation process today, are designed for single package delivery, necessitated a separate carrier drone for each shipment to be carried out. This situation is predicted to affect the drone traffic in the sky, the time and energy loss in the drone routes. The most important solution to the problem is the adaptation of the milk-run system to the drone transport sector.
This system, which has a positive effect on economy, time and energy management, is an undeniable fact. In the future, the drone is a realistic solution, with increased capacity and battery life. System; It is foreseen that several packages to be delivered will be loaded and distributed to the drone at one time. However, there is no such drone or system plan yet.