The US military began to use a revolutionary drone for military resources in Kabul, Afghanistan. He developed a military drone to carry out transports when trucks carrying ammunition and medical equipment between remote outposts were frequently attacked, caught on mines, rendered unusable with trapped bombs, and became a threat to all logistical operations.
Armed versions for surveillance aircraft and air strikes to monitor enemy activities are being used by many states, including our country. However, this initiative of the US military shows that it was the first operational operation in terms of military logistics support activities.
With this system developed in Afghanistan, hundreds of tons of cargo has been transported since 17 December 2016. White House spokesman Kyle O’Connor said, ’The fact that the territory of Afghanistan is full of mines and explosives is always a problem for our land logistics convoys. Every load we can transfer from the ground convoy to air operations will reduce the dangers our soldiers face every day. With the unmanned transport drone developed, even one of our soldiers will not be damaged and it is the best result for us to perform lossless operations ’’
Likewise, when Chinese manufacturer Ehang introduced the world’s first passenger drone at the Consumer Electronics Show, there was something he didn’t mention. Ehang CEO Huazhi Hu said his goal was to make it easier and faster for people to fly and revolutionize commercial flights in areas such as medical care, shipping and retailing. However, it turned out that the vehicle produced could work in connection with manned and unmanned aerial vehicles.
Powerful armies around the world have begun to deal with unmanned transport systems to strengthen their logistics services. Our finishing work; The aim of this new system is to take into consideration the benefits of the system, to provide useful information to those interested and to emphasize the importance of the subject in the future. This issue, which we consider to be very valuable in terms of having a unique speed for the urgent shipments such as medical supplies and military ammunition and optimizing the Turkish Armed Forces’ personnel loss, will be presented in detail.
1. TRANSPORTATION WITH DRONE
1.1 Place of Drone in Transportation
Considering technological developments in developing global markets; cargo drones are becoming an important part of the modern logistics industry. Cargo transportation is rapidly shifting from traditional standards to the next generation of transport vehicles.
Cargo drones are being tested primarily for combat logistics operations; it is very close to completing the testing phase to provide remote service in the food industry, package delivery in cargo companies and, most importantly, transportation of medical supplies. According to research, consumers are looking forward to this new type of cargo transport and are prepared to pay extra fees for this service. It is known that the service that makes consumers so eager is a considerably reduced delivery time. The most important feature of the drones in the cargo and military fields is that it reduces the delivery time and is a reliable means of transport.
One of the most important fields of transport with drone is undoubtedly the transportation of medical equipment. Transportation of medical equipment is one of the areas where the drone is most needed. When it comes to health, speed is at the beginning of the intervention process. For this reason, trials were carried out with drone to transport medical equipment in various parts of the world.
In the military field, the first drones; camera and radar systems with field detection, observation and so on. used for purposes, nowadays military ammunition, food, weapons and so on. materials are used for transport purposes.
It is observed that phlebotomy (blood bag) is the first transportation material on behalf of the most urgent and urgent need in the field of medicine. Studies are being carried out on drones that can carry out transport without disturbing the temperature and structural values of the blood.
1.2. The Future of Drone in Transport
One of the problems with drone transportation is the drone’s route point density. The fact that the drone prototypes that will carry out the transportation process today are designed for single package delivery has created the need for a separate carrier drone for each shipment. It is predicted that this will affect the drone traffic in the sky and the loss of time and energy on the routes the drone hits. The most important solution to this problem is the idea of adapting the milk-run system to the drone transport industry.
This system, which has a positive effect in terms of economy, time and energy management; In the future, it appears as a realistic solution with drone transport and battery. System; It envisages that several packages to be delivered will be loaded and distributed to the drone at once. However, there is no such drone or system plan yet among the commitment drone prototypes. This; It is an adaptation of the milk-run system to transport drones. It is recommended by us as a simple but effective solution.
For the future of transportation with drone, many military and first aid activities are carried out. The most important titles that can be used in the military field are; With the unmanned aerial vehicle drone that the US army is currently testing; It carries out many studies on human and live transport. At the same time, significant improvements have been made in the studies on first aid and medical team transportation. In these studies, there are two medical personnel, one or two stretchers and medical equipment inside the drone. And in future studies, it is aimed to improve the equipment inside the drone.
For now, it has focused solely on passenger transport and live transport studies, where the US army’s largest drone manufacturer Israel has jointly conducted trials with Flytrex company in the military field, which is 10 for now, and this number is predicted to be increased in the future. If positive results are obtained as a result of these studies, many airlines and air cargo companies will start transporting with future drones. Drones to be used in the future will create a more profitable and more reliable environment for both airlines and consumers. At the same time, risks for airports and air traffic will be minimized.
1.3. Drone’s Usage Areas Today for Logistics Purposes
The first attempt to transport cargo with drone was made by Amazon. Amazon, which started trials in Cambridge, made an experiment to provide mail delivery via drone. This trial was a success and marked a major step forward in Amazon’s drone distribution plans.
Amazon delivered the Fire TV and popcorn bag as a package on their first trial at Cambirdge, which was delivered in 13 minutes and made a huge improvement in terms of time savings in cargo transportation.
Israeli company Flytrex, one of the world’s largest drone manufacturers; It is the first company to serialize drone production. In 2018, the R&D investments made in the previous years were paid; It has greatly increased the flight range, portable payload, size and fuel optimization of drones.
Iceland is one of the first countries to regularly enter the drone delivery process. AHA, one of Iceland’s largest e-commerce companies, has partnered with Flytrex, one of the world’s best drone manufacturing companies, to expand its delivery network and provide efficient delivery and short shipping times to customers in Reykjavik.
AHA using Flyrex’s drone distribution system; It carries cargo over the river that divides the city into two, reducing delivery times and costs.
Drone transportation system provided by Flytrex; It has made great improvements in portable load capacity, workforce, customer satisfaction, fast delivery and economic terms.
Deliveries in Reykjavik, which will take 25 minutes by car, can be completed by a drone in just four minutes.
Customers who order in Reykjavik, Iceland’s capital, will be able to receive food and other products directly to their door with drones, which will significantly speed up delivery times.
“We now make deliveries as easy and fast as ordering.” (Yariv Bash, CEO of Flytrex)
Cargo delivery by drone in Reykjavik; aims to ship drones to neighboring countries and overseas countries in the future.
At the beginning of 2014, after the USA initiated legal regulations on drone transportation, the investments made increased again. It is predicted that there will be an increase in investments due to the positive results of the tests carried out every year.
The most efficient type of transportation used in cargo transportation with drone is first aid and emergency medical equipment delivery. Blood, organs, drugs, etc. Medical equipment transportation is carried out regularly and systematically by many countries.
Contrary to popular belief, the region where drone delivery is used the most is the East Africa region. It was first used in the East African region in Rwanda and Tanzania. Rwanda has made more than 1500 successful deliveries to date.
‘’ Most people; drone, robotics and artificial intelligence have the wrong opinion that they are being used by wealthy countries that have completed their development. Not the richest countries, but those that are willing to try modern reform and new things, benefit more from this change. ‘’ (Zipline CEO Keller Rinaudo)
Tanzania aims to open 4 drone distribution centers with Zipline from Silicon Valley and to perform more than 2000 flights with more than 100 drones.
In the East African Region; In the region where land transportation is not developed and many health problems are experienced; With the support of many foundations and countries, first aid and emergency medical supplies are transported by drones. Switzerland is one of the countries that use first aid cargo transportation with drone in the most efficient and systematic way outside the East Africa Region.
Swiss Post (Swiss Post) and drone manufacturer Matternet; Lugano successfully transported laboratory samples with drones between two hospitals in Switzerland. Hospitals made deliveries by drones between each other a regular operation in 2018. (aircargoworld.com, 2018)
Swiss Post, Ticino EOC Hospital Group and Matternet launched the joint project in March 2017. Until this date, samples were transported by road, but as a result of this experiment, it was concluded that drones could transport faster and more efficiently than road transport. Approximately seventy test flights have been carried out since March. Subsequent test flights will run until April 4, 2018 and an evaluation will be made. More tests are planned for the summer of 2018. The drones used in these tests are 80 centimeters in diameter and can carry items up to 2 kilograms. It has a flight range of 20 kilometers.
Since the safety of valuable medical supplies is important, safe landing can be made with the help of a parachute that will release the medical product carried in all electronic malfunctions in order to ensure safe transport of the drone.
Drones; It has also been used for first aid interventions and as an ambulance. The first minutes after an accident are critical to providing the right care for heart attack prevention. Speeding up emergency response can prevent deaths and speed recovery significantly. This is especially true for heart failure, choking, trauma, and respiratory problems. Lifesaving technologies such as Automatic External Defibrillator (AED), drug therapy, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) aids are designed compact enough to be carried by a drone.
For Ambulance Drone; A compact flying toolbox containing essential materials for improved life support has been developed. Portability and foldability help the drone to be used anywhere, also indoors. The first prototype focuses on the delivery of an Automated Defibrillator (AED). Around 800,000 people a year have a heart attack in the European Union, which is a sad number considering that only 8% of people who have had a heart attack survive. The main reason for this high number of casualties is the relative delay of emergency services to the scene. (10 minutes). Brain death and permanent death begin to occur within just 4 to 6 minutes. It is aimed to increase this survival rate significantly with the Ambulance Drone. The combination of a two-way, video-supported communication channel with 112 operators and first responders on the drone will improve the first aid process. Successful use of AED by employers is currently 20%. Personalized instructions and communication with the Ambulance Drone, this can be increased by up to 90%. In short, the Ambulance Drone helps to save lives by expanding the existing emergency infrastructure with emergency aid supplies and a network of fast and compact UAVs that can communicate anywhere.
Since the beginning of 2018, trials have started with drones not only to carry first aid supplies, but also as a real ambulance with a staff member.
In some rural areas, people may have to wait for hours for emergency support. However, a new drone ambulance has been designed that can significantly reduce waiting times and save lives. The drone concept does not need a pilot, and unlike large helicopter ambulances, it is small enough to easily land on a street.
Ambulance transportation time can be delayed in big cities due to traffic and various reasons. But a new drone ambulance has been designed, which can significantly reduce delay times.
The drone is modeled on a standard quadcopter (4-propeller) and is driven by GPS, a pilot, or a combination of both. The emergency medical technician is delivered to the scene by the drone ambulances as quickly as possible to provide first aid. The size of a compact car, unlike larger helicopters, it can go almost anywhere, even in heavy traffic. The ambulance drone was designed by Argodesign, a company based in Austin, Texas. Mark Rolston is the founder of the firm. Mark Rolston: ‘Obviously; It is not a situation we are used to very much, but the use of drones in the first aid and health sector, except for military and photography situations, will be of great benefit. ‘’
2. Use Of Drone in the Military Area
2.1 Use of Drone in Military Field
The use of drone in the military field is the drone transportation type that has been invested most recently. The US army makes the most investments in drone transportation in the military field. The American Army is carrying out drone works that can carry large loads, jointly with the Boing Company. Boeing’s first cargo plane prototype — the largest drone prototype ever built, was Godzilla. The world’s largest aviation company believes autonomous civil drones are the future of commercial shipping.
Boeing’s vision of a cargo plane has little in common with existing plans from consumer-focused companies like Amazon, DHL, and even Domino’s Pizza. These companies focus directly on the final delivery point and carry small packages or food to the customer at home. For example, DHL has been experimenting with drone deliveries since 2014, and Amazon delivered the first Prime drone in March 2017. Boeing’s prototype was not designed for home delivery.
The Boing 747 drone is the largest drone ever produced and has the longest range. Equipped with special batteries that power eight counter-rotating motors 15 meters long and 18 meters wide with propellers six meters long, it allows it to fly several hundred meters at a theoretical speed of 70 miles per hour. This flying beast can load cargo up to 500 pounds. To offer a familiar data point, today’s largest consumer drone — DJI Agras MG-1 — only carries 22 pounds.
Boeing’s prototype flies entirely by itself, thanks to the technology of autonomous flight development company Aurora Flight Sciences, which Boeing acquired last October. In fact, it was a small team of 50 people from Aurora and Boeing who built the prototype quarterly. The Lightningstrike, dubbed Aurora, the US Air Force and Darpa, had a start where he created a prototype for a fully autonomous drone. But this concept was completely different from Boeing’s octocopter; that an airplane can land like a helicopter, but the products are the same as the way the airplane is loaded. Bell Boeing uses an architecture similar to the V-22 Osprey.
Until now, Boeing has been using all drone technology for armed drones. Most of these drones were scaled aircraft or full helicopters powered by remote controls. Now, the $ 94 billion Chicago company seems to admit that the future of transportation represents a greater opportunity than previously envisioned, and will surpass military use over time. Therefore, he designed this vehicle that uses the usual multi-engine architecture of smaller consumer aircraft and Amazon’s delivery prototypes, rather than the typical aircraft design of military aircraft. In a press release, Greg Hyslop, Boeing Technology Director, said the prototype was Boeing’s “important step to really change air travel and transportation.”
2.2. Importance of Military Drones in Logistic Support
The JTARV is a military transport drone equipped with equipment that can be the backbone of battlefield support for the US military. The military transport drone, called the Joint Tactical Air Vehicle or JTARV and developed at the Army Research Laboratory, is compared to the “Amazon on the battlefield”. With a single command, the soldiers needed can be supplied by the drone wherever they are. (ARL Magazine)
One of the most important areas of every army is logistics. Resupplying soldiers, military equipment, fuel and equipment is of paramount importance to any army.
However, transporting materials is a risky business, so researchers are working to reduce the number of active attendants on the logistics support team to minimize risk.
That’s why the military is working on JTARV. Dubbed “Hoverbike”, the unmanned quadcopter has been operating for more than two years as part of a joint effort between the military and the Marine Corps. Originally created by the UK-based Malloy Aeronautics (funded by Kickstarter), the machine was shown for Department of Defense officials last week. Malloy and ARL are working together under contract to develop JTARV, and the Marine Research Office is also working on the project.
In the military field, the supply chain is of great importance in terms of material transportation. Since the past, many efforts have been made to ensure that the armies supply chain smoothly, quickly and minimize the risk of loss of life. In World War I, the biggest problem for the armies of fighting in other geographies was supply. Although the First World War was unstable in terms of army power, the biggest reason it lasted more than 4 years is the problems experienced in the supply chain. Despite the superiority of the Anzac soldiers in numbers and ammunition, the biggest reason why the glorious Turkish Army cannot be superior is that it cannot provide troops and ammunition without any problems. Turkish army; In the Sarıkamış Operation, 60,000 martyrs were killed due to difficult weather conditions and insufficient supply planning in order to repel Russian soldiers. During World War II, again due to the problems in the supply chain, the German Nazi Army lost the war before reaching its target, Russia.
Many military projects are pioneering hardware, software and systems to provide printing, civilian logistics and distribution companies with unmanned resources related to the logistics industry with a competitive business world, while competing with an unmanned or reduced management model. Companies like Amazon, Fedex, UPS, and Rakuten have proven that unmanned distribution is possible in regulated airspace. Interestingly, the business logic behind these companies combined with marketing concepts in the 1950s. He learned lessons from World War II. This major warning should both inspire and alert to drone work for future military intelligence, Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief missions.
2.3. The Future of Military Drones in Terms of Logistics Support
Several drone companies are doing a lot of work on the development of drones for cargo transportation in the military field.
Sichuan Tengden Technology, a Beijing-based Chinese start-up company, announced that it has developed a payload drone with a payload capacity of 20 tons. He predicts that it will later become the world’s largest commercial drone. The high-tech company was founded by Chinese aviation experts and a Chinese government-owned investment company.
According to Sichuan Tengden Technology, the drone will have eight engines, a 41-meter wing, and a flight capacity of up to 7500 kilometers.
The drone’s first flight is scheduled for 2020. Sichuan also points out that a drone that can carry a payload can cut the costs of traditional air cargo transportation in half, as it has no flight crew and requires less fuel.
But Sichuan isn’t the only company investing in cargo drone startups. Natilus, a California-based company, is developing a similar payload drone with a capacity of 90 tons. The drone will be 60 meters long and will take off for the first time in 2020.
But Sichuan isn’t the only company investing in cargo drone startups. Natilus, a California-based company, is developing a similar payload drone with a capacity of 90 tons. The drone will be 60 meters long and will take off for the first time in 2020.
The drones will be powered by turboprop and turbofan engines and standard jet fuels flying at altitudes of about 20,000 feet. While this is well below commercial airlines, it is high enough in terms of fuel savings. Therefore, it would mean half the cost of current commercial air cargo transportation; this will result in lower fuel costs and great savings in personnel costs.
The goal is to end production of a full-scale drone by 2020, then test and certification before starting commercial flights. The company envisions selling the drones directly to customers such as Amazon, UPS and many airlines, but it also aims to sell to states for military support purposes.
2.4 Askeri Drone’lar ile Askeri Mühimmat ve Tıbbi Malzeme Sevkiyatı
Frontline soldiers will be supported by Amazon Prime Air type delivery drones under new programs approved by the US Department of Defense.
Defense ministers have been working hard lately to enable consumer firms like Amazon to deliver packages such as military equipment and medical supplies to dangerous war zones faster, cheaper and more safely.
Defense engineers are also considering building convoys of self-driving trucks protected by unmanned or remote-controlled vehicles as part of any future military logistics chain.
A £ 3 million prize-winning military shipping drone competition was held in the UK. According to the competition description; It includes the supply of military ammunition and medical supplies under bad weather conditions, from just behind the front line to where the troops are fighting.
In order to reduce the risk of soldiers and increase efficiency, the UK aims to develop special systems for unmanned delivery of warplanes and move rapidly in the development of special delivery drones.
Harriet Baldwin, who headed the defense tender, said the purpose of the contest called MOD was to use the latest technology to keep military personnel safe.
He continued: “We have to work on the military supply drone to design breakthrough autonomous systems that will supply the frontline against the industry and academia.”
It is also stated that the safety of drones, airports and the distances between conventional flights around airplanes should be carefully evaluated.
Liz Quintana, senior research fellow for the future and technology of the Royal United Services Institute, said that the creation of unmanned vehicles would be “slightly less controversial than using armed drones” of military vehicles and cargo planes.
America tested a drone in Afghanistan in 2012 and was using it for ferry services to advanced operating bases around Helmand province.
The US Army also introduced a logistical “hover bike” earlier this year, called the joint tactical air support vehicle. The US Army’s research lab announced that the drone aims to carry an 800 pound payload for a range of more than 800 miles.
“We want to reach out and encourage organizations that may not have previously worked with the defense and security sector, such as the development of commercial driverless vehicles, drone delivery services, and the like,” said Peter Stockel, who led the projects of the US Department of Health.
2.5. Effects of Military Transport Drones on the Terrorist Threat
Terror has become the common problem of all countries in the 21st century. Particularly in Africa, the Middle East and our country is a major threat in Turkey’s geography. The country lost more soldiers in the 21st century is the fight against terrorism in Turkey.
The first drone was used by the US military in Afghanistan in the fight against terrorism, but these drones are for attack and observation purposes. Again, the US military first used the transport drone named K-Max in 2011 in the fight against terrorism.
It was seen as one of the biggest reasons for the US military’s unsuccessful results in Afghanistan as a supply problem in the difficult terrain. In order to eliminate this problem, K-Max developed the K-Max unmanned transport drone by developing the helicopter with unmanned aerial vehicle drone technology. The US military first used the K-Max to transport ammunition between US outposts in Afghanistan. Later, it was used to provide ammunition support to soldiers in difficult war zones. US military; It also used drones for drones in the fight against terrorism in Syria.
The USA, which is the most active use of unmanned transport drones in the military field, minimizes human loss and loss of time in transportation in the fight against terrorism in Afghanistan and Syria. As of 2018, besides the US army, the Israeli and British military also use drones for military purposes. Many countries also make large investments and carry out R&D studies for unmanned transport drones.